Topic of the Week Wrongful Termination v. At-Will Employment
“Wrongful termination” is a phrase that is often misused and may be confusing. People often believe that they have a lawsuit for wrongful termination any time they have been fired unjustly. However, wrongful termination from a legal perspective describes a situation in which the employer violates a specific law, public policy, or the terms of an employment contract by firing you. Many of those laws have their own enforcement mechanisms, and so a separate legal claim for wrongful termination may not be necessary.
1. What is at-will employment?
At-will employment refers to the legal principle applicable to most private workplaces in the United States. At-will employment means that the employer or the employee can end the employment at any time, with or without advance notice, and for any reason--or no reason--at all. Wrongful termination is a very limited exception to at- will employment.
2. Can discrimination be considered wrongful termination?
Yes. Since discrimination on the basis of specific protected categories violates federal and/or state law, being terminated for that reason is being terminated for an illegal reason. If you can show that you were terminated based on your race, color, national origin, sex, religion, disability, pregnancy, or age (or other legally protected categories), your termination could be considered wrongful termination. Most states have their own enforcement mechanism for discrimination cases, and are therefore not brought as wrongful termination cases.
3. What are considered violations of public policy?
If an employer fires an employee for reasons that society recognizes as illegitimate grounds for termination, it is considered a violation of public policy. These reasons may include: firing for taking time off work to vote or serve on a jury or even notifying authorities about some wrongdoing harmful to the public (whistleblowing).
Thought of the Week
"There is no federal law against wrongful termination, and therefore what is considered to be “wrongful termination” will vary by state, with some states not recognizing a separate legal claim for wrongful termination at all. If your employer has not violated a law, public policy or employment contract, then your employment is most likely “at-will employment” and your termination alone does not violate the law or give you a right to go to court."
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